MLOP Course Curriculum

Subject:  Basic Anatomy & Physiology of Human body


  1. Demonstrate a basic comprehensive knowledge about the major anatomical system and structure of different parts of Human Body.
  2. Describe the function of different systems of the Human body.

Course Contents:

  • The Cellular System: Cell & it’s structure and their function, Cell division & it’s types, Tissue & types of tissue, function of tissue
  • The Skeletal System: Anatomical terms, Basic structure of a bone, Classification of the bones, Functions of the bones, The different bones of the body, Skull, Vertebral column, Thorax, The appendicular skeleton, Joints and movements
  • The Muscular System: Types of muscles, Muscles of the face, Muscles attached to the vertebral column, Muscles of abdominal wall, Muscles of trunk, Muscles of upper limb, Muscles of lower limb
  • The Cardio-vascular system: Structure and function of heart, Circulation of the body, Constituents of blood and their functions, Functions of cardiovascular system
  • The Respiratory System: Respiratory pathway, Structure of lungs, Mechanism of respiration
  • The Nervous System: Central nervous system, autonomous nervous system and peripheral nervous system, Cranial Nerves, Sense organs (Ear, Eye, Nose, Tongue, Skin)
  • The Excretory System: The excretory substances, The excretory organs, The structure of kidney, Formation of urine, Functions of kidneys
  • The Digestive System: Organs of the digestive system, Functions of alimentary tract, Liver, Large intestine, Rectum and anus
  • The Endocrine System: General principles of hormones, The different endocrine glands and their functions, Gonads and reproductive system

Subject:  Basic Ophthalmology: Ocular Anatomy & Physiology


  1. Demonstrate a comprehensive knowledge about the major anatomical system and structure of the Human Eye.
  2. Describe the function of different parts of the Eye.

Course Contents:

  • Basic parts of the Eye: Definition- Cornea, Sclera, Angle structure, Iris, Pupil, Lens, Vitreous, Retina, Macula, Optic nerve, Tear film, Extra ocular muscles, Identification of different structures of the eyeball
  • Orbit: Basic parts of the orbit, Name of the orbital bones, Contents of the orbit
  • Extra Ocular Muscles: origin, course, insertion, nerve supply, mechanism of action of muscles, ocular movements (Monocular, Binocular)
  • Eye Lids: Eyelid margin, Eyelash, Canthus, Crease, Skin & subcutaneous tissue of the eyelid, Muscles, Glands, Nerve supply, Functions of eyelid
  • Lacrimal Apparatus: Structure and Function of lacrimal drainage system
  • Conjunctiva: Structure, Different parts of conjunctiva, Blood and nerve supply
  • Cornea & Sclera: Dimension, Layers, Functions of Cornea & Sclera, Transparency of the cornea, Nutrition & permeability of the cornea, Metabolism of Cornea, Wound healing of the cornea
  • Uvea: Structure & functions of Iris, Choroid, Ciliary body
  • Crystalline Lens: Dimension, Structure, Functions, Transparency, Nutrition, Metabolism
  • Retina & Vitreous: Structure, Function, Blood supply, Metabolism, Blood retinal barrier
  • Tear Film: Composition, Protective substance, Circulation, Pre-corneal tear film & it’s functions, Reflex stimulation
  • Aqueous Humour: Components, Formation, Functions, Circulation, Blood aqueous barrier
  • Visual Pathway: Anatomy of different components of visual pathway, pupillary pathway & reaction (Light reflex, Near reflex)
  • Optic Nerve & Cranial Nerve-III, IV, V, VI, VII: functional components, course & distribution
  • Physiology of vision: Vision, Visual acuity, Color vision, Visual field, visual perception (light sense, form sense, color & contrast sense), visual adaptation


Subject:  Ocular Pharmacology


  1. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of various methods of drug delivery, including drops, ointments, sustained-release medications, injectable medications and systemic medications.
  2. Describe the indications, contraindications, and potential side effects of specific drugs

    Course Contents:

    • Introduction: pharmacology, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, receptor, drug & it’s type, use of drugs
    • Drug Administration: routes of drug administration & drug delivery system, Mention different form of drugs –eye drop, solution, suspension, ointment
    • Mydriatics & Cycloplegics: name of the drugs, indication, mode of action, side effect, maximum onset, duration of activity
    • Glaucoma & Allergic medications: name of the drug, indication, mode of action, side effect, duration of activity
    • Anti-infective agents (anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-parasitic): name of the drug, indication, mode of action, side effect
    • Steroids & Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: name of the drug, indication, mode of action, side effect
    • Anesthetics: name of the drug, indication, mode of action, side effect
    • Osmotic & Ocular lubricants: name of artificial tear eye drops, indication, mode of action
    • Diagnostic agents: Name the ophthalmic dyes, Uses of Fluorescein Sodium, Rose Bengal
    • Ophthalmic Prescription: writing ophthalmic prescription, advice, interpretation

Subject:  Basic Ocular Microbiology


  1. Mention name of the micro-organisms causing eye diseases
  2. Mention names of pathological investigations related to eye diseases

Course Contents:

  • Micro-organisms causing eye diseases: Mention the types of microorganisms with examples: bacterium, virus, fungus, protozoan with example
  • Common pathways of disease transmission: mention the common pathways with examples
  • Pathological investigations related to eye diseases: names & indication
  • Clinical asepsis: principles of asepsis, guidelines for MLOP in relation to asepsis
  • Infection: definition, types with example, prevention of infection (sterilization, hand washing)



Subject:  Basis Clinical Ophthalmology


  1. Mention sign, symptoms, investigation and treatment of some common eye diseases
  2. Perform early detection and timely referral of diagnosed cases to appropriate facilities for eye care

    Course contents:

    • Diseases of Orbit: Orbital cellulitis, Orbital tumour
    • Diseases of the Lacrimal System: Dacryocystitis, Disease of Lacrimal Gland & Duct
    • Diseases of the Eyelid: Trichiasis, Phthiriasis, Palpebrarum, Blepharitis, External hordeolum (Stye), Chalazion, Ectropion, Entropion, Ptosis, Lid Tumors
    • Diseases of Conjunctiva: Conjunctivitis, Ophthalmia neonatorum, Pterygium
    • Diseases of Cornea and Sclera: Congenital anomalies, Keratitis, Corneal ulcers, Dry Eye, Vascularization & Oedema of the cornea, Scleritis, Episcleritis
    • Disease of Uveal Tract: Uveitis, Endophthalmitis, Panophthalmitis
    • Diseases of the lens: Congenital anomalies, Cataract, Senile/Acquired cataract
    • Diseases of the Retina: Congenital anomalies, Vascular disorder, Retinal pigmentosa, Age related Macular Digeneration
    • Glaucoma: different types of glaucoma
    • Pediatric eye Disease: Congenital naso lacrimal duct obstruction, Congenital Cataract, Squint, Refractive error Amblyopia (Lazy eye), Retinoblastoma, Pediatric Glaucoma
    • Neuro ophthalmology: Optic neuritis, Papilloedema, Optic atrophy, Cranial Nerve Palsies (3rd, 4th, 6th, 7th)
    • Ocular Trauma & Emergency: Open globe injury, Closed Globe injuries, Eyelid and adnexal injuries, Chemical injuries, Superficial Foreign Body, Ocular Emergencies
    • Refractive error: Hypermetropia, Myopia, Astigmatism
    • Low Vision
    • Systemic Diseases related to Eye: Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, Bronchial Asthma




Subject:  Basic Ophthalmic Surgery


Describe the general aspects of ocular surgeries such as sterilization of OT dress, materials, instruments

Demonstrate skills in preparing surgical trolley, patient draping and proper disposal of OT wastage

Follow preoperative and post-operative instructions of ophthalmologist

Demonstrate skills in counseling to patients and attendants before operation, after operation and during discharge from hospital

Course Contents:

General aspects of surgery: General aspects of surgery, dress code in OT

Operation Theatre set up

Preoperative Preparations for

  • Cataract surgery
  • DCR/DCT operation
  • Glaucoma & others intraocular surgery
  • Pediatric ophthalmic surgery

Postoperative care for

  • Cataract surgery
  • DCR/DCT operation
  • Glaucoma & others intraocular surgery
  • Pediatric ophthalmic surgery

Some ophthalmic procedures

  • DCR tube removal
  • Sac patency test
  • IOP measurement including Applanation
  • Stitch removal
  • Foreign Body removal
  • Opening & Closing pad & bandage

Ocular Emergency

  • Eye injury
  • Chemical Bur
  • Others

Surgical Ophthalmic Instruments & Equipment (use & maintenance)

Surgical management of the following diseases:

  • Cataract
  • Chronic Dacrocystitis
  • Pterygium
  • Stye
  • Chalazion
  • Glaucoma

Proper disposal OT wastage

Subject:  Community Ophthalmology


  1. Describe community ophthalmology and MPLOs role in community eye care programme
  2. Describe WHO’s definition of visual impairment and blindness
  3. Mention the common eye diseases of public health importance

Course Contents:

  • Community ophthalmology: Definition of community ophthalmology and MLOPs role in community eye care program, Describe the social responsibilities of an MLOP
  • Blindness and visual impairment: WHO’s definition of vision impairment and blindness, common causes of blindness, prevention of blindness, rehabilitation of blind, vision 2020 “right to sight”
  • Nutritional Deficiency: Vitamin A Deficiency
  • Common eye diseases of public health importance
  • Primary Eye Care: conditions to be recognized and referred by MLOP for primary eye care, Describe barriers and strategies for effective communication
  • Community Outreach Program: Eye Screening Program, School eye health screening programs, Role of MLOP as an educator, Vision Center Management




Patient Examination & Diagnosis

1.      History taking & examination of eye cases

2.      Vision test

·        Visual Acuity

·        Color Vision

·        Pin hole vision test

·        Ten diopter test

·        Macular Function test

3.      Local Examination of the Eye

4.      IOP measurement by

·        Schiotz tonometer

·        Applanation tonometer

5.      Ocular Motility Test

6.      Fluorescein dye test

7.      Pupillary Light Reflex test

8.      Preliminary idea for –

·        Torch Light Examination

·        Slit lamp Examination

·        Fundoscopic Examination

Ophthalmic Outdoor Procedures

1.      Patient greetings

2.      Instilling Eye drop

3.      Dilation of Pupil

4.      SPT

5.      Assisting doctor during patient examination

6.      Assisting in FB Removal

7.      DCR tube removal

8.      Patient preparation for-

·        Funduscopy

·        Applanation tonometry

9.      Explanation of prescription

Pathological Investigation

1.      Corneal Scraping

2.      Other pathological test related to eye

Ophthalmic Indoor Procedures

1.      Application of Ophthalmic drugs

2.      Pre-operative preparation

3.      Post-operative care & Counseling

Operation Theater

1.      Theater Setup

2.      Surgical trolley preparation

3.      Patient draping

4.      Dressing

5.      Use & maintenance of the OT equipment & surgical instrument

6.      Cleaning

7.      Sterilization

8.      Surgical Assistance

9.      Observation of Anesthesia-

·        Cataract Surgery

·        DCR/DCT surgery

Patient Handling & Medical Records

1.      Orientation to medical records

2.      Patient profile, MRD card checking

3.      Documentation

4.      Pre & Post-operative counseling

Use & Maintenance of the ophthalmic equipment & instrument

1.      Trial lens set

2.      Volk Lenses

3.      Slit lamp

4.      Retinoscope

5.      Ophthalmoscope

6.      Auto-refractometer